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A low carbohydrate, high protein diet combined with celecoxib markedly reduces metastasis
Ho VW, Hamilton MJ, Dang N-HT, Hsu BE, Adomat HH, Guns ES, Weljie A, Samudio I, Bennewith KL & Krystal G. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet combined with celecoxib markedly reduces metastasis. Carcinogenesis 35: 2291-2299, 2014.
We recently demonstrated that both murine and human carcinomas grow significantly slower in mice on low carbohydrate (CHO), high protein diets than on isocaloric Western diets and that a further reduction in tumor growth rates occur when the low CHO diets are combined with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. Following upon these studies, we asked herein what effect low CHO, high protein diets, with or without celecoxib, might have on tumor metastasis. In the highly metastatic 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model, a 15% CHO, high protein diet supplemented with celecoxib (1 g/kg chow) markedly reduced lung metastases. Moreover, in longer-term studies using male Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate mice, which are predisposed to metastatic prostate cancer, the 15% CHO diet, with and without celecoxib (0.3 g/kg chow), gave the lowest incidence of metastases, but a more moderate 25% CHO diet containing celecoxib led to the best survival. Metabolic studies with 4T1 tumors suggested that the low CHO, high protein diets may be forcing tumors to become dependent on amino acid catabolism for survival/growth. Taken together, our results suggest that a combination of a low CHO, high protein diet with celecoxib substantially reduces metastasis.