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Hypermutation signature reveals a slippage and realignment model of translesion synthesis by Rev3 polymerase in cisplatin-treated yeast
Segovia R, Shen Y, Lujan SA, Jones SJ & Stirling PC. Hypermutation signature reveals a slippage and realignment model of translesion synthesis by Rev3 polymerase in cisplatin-treated yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114: 2663-2668, 2017.
Gene-gene or gene-drug interactions are typically quantified using fitness as a readout because the data are continuous and easily measured in high throughput. However, to what extent fitness captures the range of other phenotypes that show synergistic effects is usually unknown. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and focusing on a matrix of DNA repair mutants and genotoxic drugs, we quantify 76 gene-drug interactions based on both mutation rate and fitness and find that these parameters are not connected. Independent of fitness defects, we identified six cases of synthetic hypermutation, where the combined effect of the drug and mutant on mutation rate was greater than predicted. One example occurred when yeast lacking RAD1 were exposed to cisplatin, and we characterized this interaction using whole-genome sequencing. Our sequencing results indicate mutagenesis by cisplatin in rad1Δ cells appeared to depend almost entirely on interstrand cross-links at GpCpN motifs. Interestingly, our data suggest that the following base on the template strand dictates the addition of the mutated base. This result differs from cisplatin mutation signatures in XPF-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans and supports a model in which translesion synthesis polymerases perform a slippage and realignment extension across from the damaged base. Accordingly, DNA polymerase ζ activity was essential for mutagenesis in cisplatin-treated rad1Δ cells. Together these data reveal the potential to gain new mechanistic insights from nonfitness measures of gene-drug interactions and extend the use of mutation accumulation and whole-genome sequencing analysis to define DNA repair mechanisms.