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UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells
Samudio I, Rezvani K, Shaim H, Hofs E, Ngom M, Bu L, Liu G, Lee JT, Imren S, Lam V, Poon GF, Ghaedi M, Takei F, Humphries K, Jia W & Krystal G. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells. Blood 127: 2575-2586, 2016.
Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light-inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation-dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell-depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML.